, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. date 01 Nov ; Publisher IHS ESDU; Imprint ESDU International PLC. ESDU provides validated engineering design data, methods, IHS ESDU methods are developed by industry for industry. ESDU’s staff of ESDU This was not predicted by ESDU The prediction of limits to heat transfer was not accurate and more work is needed in this area. The overall results are.

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The driving pressure for liquid circulation within the heat pipe is given by the capillary force established within the wick structure, namely:. Heat is transferred by means of evaporation and condensation, and gravity is used to return the liquid film to the evaporator as compared with esdj designs which use a wick as described in ESDU Explore the A-Z Index.

The prediction of limits to heat transfer was not accurate and more work is needed in this area. Additional Engineering References 18038 The choice of liquid charge is related to the required operating temperature range of the heat pipe.

The choice of working fluid very much depends on the thermophysical properties of the fluid as well as the mode of operation of the device. The temperature of the vapor corresponds to the vapor pressure, and any temperature variation throughout the system is related directly to vapor pressure drop.

The temperature drop across the wick structure in the evaporator region increases with evaporator heat flux. The reactor vessel would be fed with water through porous dispenser tubes. 8138, Structures of very high thermal conductance, J Appl. The use of a simple esu in the evaporator was found to hinder heat transfer. Nucleation sites, at which bubbles first form, are provided by scratches or rough surfaces and by the release of absorbed gas. ESDU Heat pipes – properties of common small-pore wicks.


There is also the potential of enhanced heat pipe performance, when operating in the capillary limit regime, with use of composite wick structure design.

These limits were catogorized by Busse and are as follows. In the case of freon, evaporation and superheat was achieved uniformly with a porous element in excess of l m long. Two working fluids, water and hexane, were tested and a 60 mesh stainless steel wick was also used in the evaporator. The factor f 3 is a function of the inclination of the heat pipe.

This was not predicted by ESDU Wing lift-curve slope Local and mean skin friction coefficients on a flat plate Aerospace Structures: The thermosyphon differs from the heat pipe, in having no wick structure. The choice of working fluid must be such that the heat pipe is operated at a temperature well beyond the viscous limit, even at start up.

IHS ESDU Heat pipes – performance of two-phase closed thermosyphons.

ESDU relates to thermosyphons having i circular tubes of uniform cross section, ii a single component working fluid and no non-condensable gas, iii either no wick or a simple wick or insert in the evaporator wall and iv angles of inclination to the horizontal of 5 degrees to 90 degrees. Vacuum ConfVienna. Phone ext Email ucresearchrepository canterbury. This eventually leads to ” dry out “, which in the case of constant heat flux heating can cause ” Burn Out ” of the evaporator containment.

Heat Pipes – Performance of Two-phase Closed Thermosyphons. 81038

The short residence time for liquid heating and evaporation was exploited in further work associated with pyrolytic chemical reactions. In selecting the working fluid for a heat pipe or thermosyphon it is necessary to ensure that the device operates within the above defined limits.

ESDU deals with performance prediction of capillary-driven heat pipes, ESDU deals with performance prediction of two-phase closed thermosyphons, ESDU introduces the use of heat pipes and includes practical design experience, and ESDU gives properties of fluids relevant to heat pipe operation at temperatures of to K.


These results compare well with the predicted values found using a calculation procedure presented by Engineering Services Data Unit, Item No. ESDU Heat pipes – performance of two-phase closed thermosyphons. The factor f 1 is a function of a dimensionless parameter K pwhich is defined as.


The heat pipe has four major operating regimes, each of which sets a limit of performance in either heat transfer rate axial or radial or temperature drop. The maximum rate of heat transfer under this restricted vapor pressure drop limit is given by:. Vapor Pressure esdj Viscous Limit. Send Feedback Contact Us. At a temperature above the vapor pressure limit, the vapor velocity can be comparable with sonic velocity and the vapor flow becomes “choked”. This condition relates to entrainment or flooding.

The wick is designed to provide a capillary pumping action, as described below. For laminar flow condition i. At low temperature range of operation of the working fluid, especially at start-up of the heat pipe, the minimum pressure at the condenser end of the pipe can be very small. The liquid metals, having much higher surface tension give much higher degrees of superheat e.

Drag due to grooves in a flat plate with a turbulent boundary layer, at subsonic and supersonic speeds A The heat pipe is a development of the thermosyphonin which there is no wick structure and liquid is returned to the evaporator by gravity.

One of its main features, namely isothermalization, is of major significance in this application.